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[机械传动] 【实用】如何用万用表判断电动机的转速和区分绕组的头尾

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发表于 2014-11-6 23:39:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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在调试现场经常会遇到一台电机没有铭牌,可又非常想知道这台电机的转速,又没有转速表,又不想费力气拆开电机。
    这时你可以用你手中的万用表解决这个问题。
    我们知道只要知道电动机的极数,就可以知道电动机的大约转速。判断方法如下:
    1、首先将电动机的六个头的连接线和短接片都拆开,利用万用表的欧姆挡任意找出一组绕组。
    2、再将万用表拨到毫安挡的最小的一档,分别接在这个绕组的两端上。
    3、然后,将电动机的转子慢慢地均匀转动一圈,看看万用表的指针左右摆动几次,如果摆动一次,就说明电流正负变化一个周期,就是二极电动机。同样的理由,摆动两次就是四极电动机,三次就是六极电动机。以此类推,就可以利用万用表的毫安挡位,将电动机转动一圈,指针摆动几次这个现象,判断电动机是几极电动机,从而知道电动机的大约转速(即略低于同步转速)。
    我们知道电动机的同步转速与磁极数的关系,电源频率是50HZ时,二极是3000转/分,四极是1500转/分,六极是1000转/分等等。公式是:N=6000/P(在工频50HZ条件,N是同步转速,P是电机的极数)。
区分交流电机绕组头尾
  可以用万用表先区分6个线头,把相通的两个线头分为一相,6个线头就可以分为三相了,然后再判断绕组的头尾,具体方法:把万用表的直流毫安档打到最小一档,并将表笔接到三相绕组的某一组两端,而电池正负极接到另一相的两个线头上。如图所示,当开关闭合瞬间,如果表针摆向大于零,则说明电池负极所接的线头与万用表表笔所接的线头是同名端(均可以认为是头)。以此类推,便可以测出另外两相的头和尾了。
可用万用表检查法或者绕组串联检查法;例用绕组串联检查法, 将任意两相绕组串联起来接上灯泡,再在第3相绕组上接220V交流电压【对大中型电机用36v】,如果灯泡亮了,说明这两相绕组头尾正确,如果灯泡不亮,说明这两相错误,可将其中一相的头尾对调再试,确定这两头尾后,可按照此方法再找到第3相的头尾。
  例用万用表检查法, 假设绕组分别为D1-D2, D3-D4, D5-D6, D1-D2绕组放置一干电池,D1接负极D2接正极,在D2至电池正间接一开关,D5接万用表负极D6接万用表正极,万用表打到毫安档,当接通开关瞬间,如万用表指针摆向大于0的一边,则电池正极接线头与万用表正端所接线头同为头或尾;如指针反向摆动,则电池正极所接线头与万用表负端接的线头同为头或尾。再将电池和万用表接至另一相的两个线头测试,就可以确定各相的头和尾啦。

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编一个梯形图让生活中的所有烦恼琐事自动运行去吧!!!
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发表于 2014-11-8 12:14:34 | 显示全部楼层
很好的基础贴!
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发表于 2014-11-13 15:03:26 | 显示全部楼层
很实用,学习学习!!!
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发表于 2014-11-21 16:20:52 | 显示全部楼层
学习了,很好的技术        
爱学习爱劳动
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发表于 2014-11-21 21:46:41 | 显示全部楼层
帖子不错
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发表于 2014-11-30 18:54:03 | 显示全部楼层
学习一下

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发表于 2014-12-5 22:09:21 | 显示全部楼层
这个要得,这是非常实用的经验!
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